Date of Birth: 20 April, 1889
Place of Birth: Braunau am Inn, Austria-Hungary (now Austria)
Date of Death: 30 April, 1945
Place of Death: Berlin, Nazi Germany (now Germany)
Ethnicity: Austrian, some German
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-German politician. He was Leader of the Nazi Party, from 29 June, 1921 to 30 April, 1945, Chancellor of Germany, from 30 January, 1933 to 30 April, 1945, and Führer of Germany, from 2 August, 1934 to 30 April, 1945. He was responsible for World War II and the Holocaust, the genocidal killing of six million Jews, and for the systematic killing of gays, Romani, and others.
He was Time Magazine’s Person of the Year for 1938.
His parents, Klara/Clara (Pölzl) and Alois Hitler (born Schickelgruber/Schicklgruber/Schikelgrueber), were both Austrian, with some German ancestry on both sides. Alois might have had distant Czech ancestry. Hitler’s father was born in Döllersheim, Niederösterreich, Austria. Hitler’s mother was born in Spital, Weitra, Lower Austria, Austria. Hitler was married to Eva Braun, until their deaths.
Hitler’s biological paternal grandfather was likely Johann Georg Hiedler (the son of Martin Hiedler and Anna Maria Göschl/Gröschl). Johann was born in Weitra, Gmünd District, Lower Austria, Austria. Martin was the son of Johannes/Johann Hiedler and Anna Maria Neugeshwandter. Hitler’s great-grandmother Anna Maria Göschl/Gröschl was the daughter of Laurenz Göschl/Gröschl.
Hitler’s paternal grandmother was Anna Maria Schickelgruber/Schicklgruber/Schikelgrueber (the daughter of Johannes Schickelgruber/Schicklgruber/Schikelgrueber and Theresia Pfeisinger). Anna Maria was born in Waldviertel. Johannes was the son of Jacob Schickelgruber/Schicklgruber/Schikelgrueber and Theresia Sillip. Hitler’s great-grandmother Theresia Pfeisinger was the daughter of Johannes Pfeisinger and Gertraut Hagen.
Hitler’s maternal grandfather was Johann Baptist Pölzl (the son of Laurenz Pölzl and Juliana/Juliane Walli/Wally). Johann was born in Bauer in Spital. Laurenz was the son of Johann Pölzl and Theresia Ledermüller. Juliana was the daughter of Franz Anton Wally and Anna Maria Stumpner.
Hitler’s maternal grandmother was Johanna Hüttler/Hiedler (the daughter of Johann Nepomuk Hüttler/Hiedler/Huettler and Eva Maria Decker). Hitler’s grandmother Johanna was born in Spital. Hitler’s great-grandfather Johann was the son of Martin Hiedler and Anna Maria Göschl/Gröschl. Eva was the daughter of Joseph Tecker and Theresia Hinterlechner. Hitler’s great-grandfather Johann was named after a Bohemian saint, John of Nepomuk, which some view as evidence for Czech ancestry. However, John of Nepomuk was an important figure for Germans as well as for Czechs.
Although it is generally regarded as most likely among historians that Johann Georg Hiedler was Hitler’s biological paternal grandfather, the identity of Hitler’s biological paternal grandfather remains unconfirmed. Hitler’s father Alois was an illegitimate child, and did not have a father listed on his birth certificate. Hitler’s biological paternal grandfather may have also been Johann Hiedler’s brother, Johann Nepomuk Hüttler/Hiedler/Huettler, who was Hitler’s maternal great-grandfather. When Alois was ten years old, he was sent to live with him at his farm in Spital, Austria. Alois later inherited a large portion of Johann Nepomuk Hüttler/Hiedler/Huettler’s life savings. Some historians take that as evidence that he knew that he was Alois’ biological father, but could not admit it due to his marriage.
Hitler’s father was brought up with his mother’s surname, “Schickelgruber/Schicklgruber/Schikelgrueber”, and when he was five years old, Johann Georg Hiedler married his mother. Later in life, Alois stated that Johann Hiedler was his biological father. He went to a priest who agreed to add Johann Hiedler as his father on his birth certificate, which the state also proceeded in doing. He subsequently could legally change his name to that of his father (with a slightly different spelling).
Another theory is that Hitler’s biological paternal grandfather was Jewish. The theory is based on a claim made after the war by Hitler’s personal lawyer, Hans Frank. He stated that Hitler told him to investigate Hitler’s ancestry, after being blackmailed by his nephew, William Patrick Hitler, who threatened to reveal embarrassing facts about his ancestry. Hans Frank stated that when Hitler’s father was born, Hitler’s paternal grandmother was working in Graz, Austria, as a cook, for a Jewish family with the surname Frankenberger. Frank concluded that it was possible that Hitler’s biological paternal grandfather was the 19 year-old son of the family, Leopold Frankenberger. However, there is no evidence to suggest that a Frankenberger family was registered in Graz at the time, or that Leopold Frankenberger even existed at all. Also, Jews had been expelled from the Austrian region where Graz was located in the 1500s, and were not allowed to return until the time that Hitler’s father was around 30 years old.
Hitler’s paternal great-grandmother, Theresia Pfeisinger, was born in Dietrichs, Germany, and Hitler’s paternal sixth great-grandfather, Jakob Weil, was born in Grömbach, Germany. Both of Hitler’s parents’ ancestries include several surnames that are more prevalent in Germany than in Austria, so Hitler may have had more German ancestry. One of Hitler’s paternal fourth great-grandfathers was Thomas Klezl. The surname “Klézl” is most prevalent in the Czech Republic, which might point towards a distant Czech ancestry. Many of Hitler’s family members lived close to the present-day border of the Czech Republic.
Journalist Jean-Paul Mulders and historian Marc Vermeeren conducted a DNA study in 2010. They said that they tested saliva samples from 39 of Hitler’s living relatives, although they also said that they did not obtain many of the saliva samples directly from the subjects (in one case using a discarded napkin). They stated that the dominant haplogroup in their DNA was E1b1b1 (a haplogroup refers only to a distant patrilineal ancestor, who perhaps lived thousands of years before the individual tested). The haplogroup E1b1b1 is said to originate in North Africa. However, the result is totally meaningless, given that research estimates that some carriers of the haplogroup have been in Europe longer than 10,000 years. 8 percent of Austrians and 5.5 percent of Germans carry the haplogroup E1b1b.