Date of Birth: 5 May, 1818
Place of Birth: Trier, Prussia, German Confederation
Date of Death: 14 March, 1883
Place of Death: London, England, U.K.
Ethnicity: Ashkenazi Jewish
Karl Marx was a Prussian-born philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist, and socialist revolutionary. Along with German philosopher Friedrich Engels, he published the 1848 pamphlet The Communist Manifesto.
Karl was the son of Henrietta/Henriette (Pressburg) and Heinrich Marx (born Herschel Mordechai), a lawyer and vineyards owner. His father was born in Saarlouis, Saarland, Germany. His mother was born in Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands.
Karl’s parents were both from Jewish families. His father converted to Lutheranism during Karl’s early years, because of anti-Semitism, and changed his name from Herschel to Heinrich. The rest of the family also converted, and Karl was subsequently raised in the Lutheran religion.
Karl’s paternal line had been rabbis in Trier (now Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) since 1723.
Karl’s mother was from a prosperous business family that later founded the company Philips Electronics. She was an aunt of Benjamin Philips (1830–1900), a wealthy banker and industrialist, a great-aunt of industrialists Anton Philips and Gerard Philips, and a great-great-aunt of businessperson Frits Philips.
Karl was also a third cousin, once removed, of German Romantic poet Heinrich Heine, who was also from a Jewish family.
Karl’s paternal grandfather was Marx Levy/Levi Halevi ben Samuel ha-Levi Mordechai (the son of Samuel Schmuel Mordechai ha-Levi and Malka Spira). Karl’s grandfather Marx was the rabbi of Trier. Karl’s great-grandfather Samuel was born in Postoloprty, Usti nad Labem, in the Czech lands, and was the son of Mordechai Marx. Malka was the daughter of Loeb Elia haLevi Spira and Saerel Krotoschin.
Karl’s paternal grandmother was Chaje Eva Lwow (the daughter of Moses/Moïse Mosche ben Josua Heschel Lwów Levoff Lemberg and Bella Eger of Furth). Chaje was born in Schwabach, Bavaria. Karl’s great-grandfather Moses was the son of Joshua Heschel Lwow, who was born in Westhoffen, Alsace, France, and of Merle Worms, who was born in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Bella was the daughter of Meir Rabbi Eger, who was born in Furth, Germany, and of Esther Moses.
Karl’s maternal grandfather was Isaac Hijman “Chaim” Jitschak Preßburg (the son of Hirschl Michl Heymann Preßburg, ben Meir Michael, and of Heintje/Hendrina Isaac Kutsch Stoekoetz). Karl’s grandfather Isaac was born in Preßburg, now Slovakia, and was a Dutch rabbi. Hirschl was the son of Michel Lazar/Eliezer Simon Freistadt, who was born in Gyor, Gyõr-Moson-Sopron, Hungary, and of Rachel Levia Helene/HaLevi Pressburg Austerlitz, who was born in Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Heintje was the daughter of Isaac Kutsch.
Karl’s maternal grandmother was Nanette Salomon Cohen (the daughter of Salomon Shlomo David Cohen-Chazzan and Sara Chaya-Sara Marcus Brandes). Nanette was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Salomon was the son of David Cohen Chazzan and Fijtje Abraham van Minden. Sara was born in Offenbach am Main, Hesse, Germany, the daughter of Marcus Mordechai Eliaser Brandeis.
Source: Genealogy of Karl Marx – https://www.geni.com
Karl’s father, a lawyer and vineyards owner, converted from Judaism to Lutheranism to escape the constraints of anti-semitic legislation, taking on the German forename of Heinrich over the Yiddish Herschel.
Karl’s mother, a Dutch Jew, hailed from a prosperous business family that later founded the company Philips Electronics: she was great-aunt to Anton and Gerard Philips, and great-great-aunt to Frits Philips. Her nephew, Benjamin Philips (1830–1900), was a wealthy banker and industrialist.
Isaac Preßburg was a Dutch rabbi. His paternal line had been rabbis in Trier (now Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) since 1723.
Karl was also a third cousin once removed of German Romantic poet Heinrich Heine