José Rizal

Birth Name: José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda

Date of Birth: June 19, 1861

Place of Birth: Calamba, Laguna, Captaincy General of the Philippines, Spanish Empire

Date of Birth: December 30, 1896

Place of Death: Bagumbayan, Manila, Captaincy General of the Philippines, Spanish Empire

Ethnicity: Filipino [Pangasinan, Tagalog, possibly Ilocano], Chinese, Japanese, some Spanish

José Rizal was a Filipino nationalist, novelist, poet, polymath, ophthalmologist, journalist, and revolutionary. He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines, and was active during the end of the Spanish Colonial Period there. He was nicknamed “Pepe” and “Jose.”

José was the son of Teodora Alonso Realonda y Quintos, who came from a wealthy family, and Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandro. Among his siblings were Saturnina Hidalgo, general and revolutionary Paciano Rizal, and feminist leader Trinidad Rizal, who co-founded the Philippines’ first feminist organization, the Asociación Femenista Filipina. José was married to Josephine Bracken (Marie Josephine Leopoldine Bracken), “La viuda de Rizal”/”The widow of Rizal.” The couple had had a son.

José’s patrilineal ancestry can be traced back to his 19th great-grandfather Ke Shan-weng (or Cua Shan Weng in Pe̍h-ōe-jī).

José’s paternal grandfather was Juan Mercado y Monicha (the son of Francisco Mercado y Chinco and Bernarda Monicha y Vargas). Francisco’s father, Domingo Lam-co, was born Ke Yi-nan, or Cua Yi Lam in Pe̍h-ōe-jī, in Siongque village, Quanzhou, Fujian, to Ke Zhang-li, or Cua Siong-co in Pe̍h-ōe-jī, and Zun-nio. Francisco’s mother, Inés/Inéz de la Rosa, was also of Chinese descent. She was the daughter of Agustín Chinco, who was a Chinese emigrant, from Quanzhou, and of Jacinta Rafaela, a Chinese mestiza. José’s great-grandmother Bernarda was also a Chinese mestiza, who was the daughter of Antonio Monicha and Ana Beatriz Vargas.

José’s paternal grandmother was Cirila Alejandro (the daughter of Juan Siong-co y Guinio and María Guinio/Gonio). Cirila was of Chinese descent. Juan was the son of Manuel Siong-co and María Guinio.

José’s maternal grandfather was Lorenzo Alberto Florentina Alonso y Alejandro (the son of Cipriano Alonso and María Florentina). Cipriano’s father, Gregorio Alonso, was a Chinese mestizo. María had no known Chinese roots, and was the daughter of Mariano Alejandro and Faustina Florentina. Faustina was believed to be connected to a family in Vigan, Ilocos Sur. It is unclear if this Ilocano ancestry has been verified/documented.

José’s maternal grandmother was Brígida Ochoa de Quintos y Ursúa (the daughter of Manuel Facundo de Quintos y Callianco and Regina Ursúa y Ochoa). Manuel was of Chinese and Pangasinan descent. He was the son of Manuel de Quintos and Rosa Sunio Callianco. Regina was of Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, and Tagalog descent. She was the daughter of Eugenio Ursúa and Benigna Ochoa.

Source: Genealogy of José Rizal –

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